schizoid personality

Personality disorder characterized by at least 3 of the following:

(a) few, if any, activities, provide pleasure;
(b) emotional coldness, detachment or flattened affectivity;
(c) limited capacity to express either warm, tender feelings or anger towards others;
(d) apparent indifference to either praise or criticism;
(e) little interest in having sexual experiences with another person (taking into account age);
(f) almost invariable preference for solitary activities;
(g) excessive preoccupation with fantasy and introspection;
(h) lack of close friends or confiding relationships (or having only one) and of desire for such relationships;
(i) marked insensitivity to prevailing social norms and conventions.

* Asperger's syndrome
* delusional disorder
* schizoid disorder of childhood
* schizophrenia
* schizotypal disorder


Diagnostic guidelines >

Conditions not directly attributable to gross brain damage or disease, or to another psychiatric disorder, meeting the following criteria:

(a) markedly dysharmonious attitudes and behaviour, involving usually several areas of functioning, e.g. affectivity, arousal, impulse control, ways of perceiving and thinking, and style of relating to others;
(b) the abnormal behaviour pattern is enduring, of long standing, and not limited to episodes of mental illness;
(c) the abnormal behaviour pattern is pervasive and clearly maladaptive to a broad range of personal and social situations;
(d) the above manifestations always appear during childhood or adolescence and continue into adulthood;
(e) the disorder leads to considerable personal distress but this may only become apparent late in its course;
(f) the disorder is usually, but not invariably, associated with significant problems in occupational and social performance.

For different cultures it may be necessary to develop specific sets of criteria with regard to social norms, rules and obligations. For diagnosing most of the subtypes listed below, clear evidence is usually required of the presence of at least three of the traits or behaviours given in the clinical description.