disorder in which there is a marked tendency to act
impulsively without consideration of the consequences,
together with affective instability. The ability to plan
ahead may be minimal, and outbursts of intense anger may
often lead to violence or "behavioural explosions";
these are easily precipitated when impulsive acts are
criticized or thwarted by others. Two variants of this
personality disorder are specified, and both share this
general theme of impulsiveness and lack of self-control.
Conditions not directly attributable to gross brain damage or disease, or to another psychiatric disorder, meeting the following criteria:
markedly dysharmonious attitudes and behaviour, involving
usually several areas of functioning, e.g. affectivity,
arousal, impulse control, ways of perceiving and
thinking, and style of relating to others;
For different cultures it may be necessary to develop specific sets of criteria with regard to social norms, rules and obligations. For diagnosing most of the subtypes listed below, clear evidence is usually required of the presence of at least three of the traits or behaviours given in the clinical description.